Class 11 Reading Notes

Chapter 16: Images (pp.406-427)

Centering image

Repeating Images

background-repeat and background-attachment

The background-repeat propery can have 4 values:

  1. repeat: the background image is repeated both horizontally and vertically
  2. repeat-x: the image is repeated horizontally only
  3. repeat-y: the image is repeated vertically only
  4. no-repeat: the image is only shown once

The background-attachment property specifies whether a background image should stay in one position or move as the user scrolls up and down the page. It can have 2 values:

  1. fixed: the background image stays in the same position on the page
  2. scroll: the background image moves up and down as the user scrolls up and down the page

Chapter 19: Practical Information (476-492)

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

On-Page SEO

In every page of your website, there are seven key places where keywords can appear in order to improve its findability. Never try to fool search engines. They will penalize you for it. For example, never add “hidden” text in the same color as the background page.

  1. Page Title

The page title appears at the top of the browser window or on the top of the browser tab, specified in the <title> element

  1. URL/ Web Address

The name of the file is part of the URL

  1. Headings

If keywords are in a heading <hn> element, then a search engine will know that this page is all about that subject and give it greater weight than other text

  1. Text

It helps to repeat the keywords in the main body of the text at least 2-3 times

  1. Link Text

Use keywords in the text that creates links between pages, rather than using generic terms like “click here”

  1. Image Alt Text

Search engines rely on you providing accurate descriptions of images & helps your image show up in the results of image-based searches

  1. Page Descriptions

The description lives inside the <head> element and is specified using a <meta>tag. It should be a sentence that describes the content of the page


As visitors come to your site, you can start analyzing how they found your site, what they were looking at, and at what point they left. Google offers a free service called Google Analytics

Web Hosting

To make your site visible online, you need to upload it to a web server. There are lots of different types of hosting offers, but there are important things that will help you choose which company to use.

  1. Disk Space

This refers to the total size of all of the files that make up your site

  1. Bandwidth

This is the amount of data the hosting company will send to your site’s visitors. If you imagine 10 people looked at every page on your site, it would be equivalent to 10 times the amound of disk space you use

  1. Backups

Check whether the hosting company performs backups on your site. Some only create backups so they can restore your website in the event of a server break. Others allow access to backups which can be helpful if you accidentally break the site while updating